Am1, self-employed folks do pay unemployment taxes in the US, at least. Maybe that’s not true in a Canada, where you are.
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In Canada, the employment status of "contract" or "gig" employees (i.e. whether they are considered employees or self-employed) will depend upon the nature of the contract and their employment history, amongst other considerations. If you are truly self-employed in Canada, you must contribute to CPP (Canada Pension Plan), but EI (employment insurance) is voluntary.
The reference by am1 to form 1099, which is an IRS form, has nothing to do with Canada. It applies only to US citizens or US tax residents or those who are considered a US person for tax purposes under IRS rules.
With the CPP, if you are self-employed, you get to pay both the employee and the employer portion!! If you elect to pay EI, then again you get to pay both the employee and employer portion, but you get to claim benefits. If you don't pay into EI, then you cannot claim unemployment insurance benefits.
During the pandemic there are other special support payments for business owners and the self-employed that could be accessed. Unfortunately, for some "gig" workers it may be more difficult to qualify for them, since they may fall through some of the "cracks", especially if they have not contributed to EI.